Friday, 10 October 2014

Fulbright Research Awards for African Scholars

The American Government through your local Embassy in Africa is now accepting applications for Fulbright African Research Programs. This award funds African university lecturers & professors to conduct postdoctoral research or undertake a planned program of reading and research at a U.S. academic or research institution.
Programs involving dissertation research or general professional travel are not eligible under these programs.
Ideal programs will contribute to the development of new courses, curricula, or programs upon the participant’s return to her/his home institution.

Application and Selection:
  • Awards are open without regard to academic discipline, faculty rank, sex and age.
  • Preference will be given to those proposals that best promote the spirit and goals of the Fulbright Program: to increase and enhance mutual understanding between the United States and African countries through inter-personal contact and the sharing of professional/academic experience and expertise among the widest possible audience.
  • This year's competition includes a special category for scholars with proposals in HIV/AIDS-related research.
  • Preference will also be given to individuals who have not visited the United States for any appreciable period within the past five years.
  • Applicants must have a strong command of the English language and at least three years of university teaching experience.
  • Applicants must have citizenship in an African country.
  • All applications should be submitted using the on-line application
  • All applications must include a detailed statement of the proposed research project, a curriculum vitae, a specific justification for the grant period requested and three letters of reference.
  • At least two references must come from specialists in the field outside the scholar's own institution.
  • A statement of support from the scholar's home institution would also be welcome.
  • Applications will be accepted for either of the following programs:
    Research Grants:
  • Applicants should have a productive scholarly record and a specific project statement directly related to their on-going teaching and/or research responsibilities.
  • Funding is normally for one term or semester (about four months).
  • Longer grants may be possible if the research project requires more time, as clearly demonstrated in the research proposal. Successful applicants must possess a Ph.D.
    Program and Curriculum Development Grants:
  • Applicants will undertake a planned program of reading and research of benefit to both the scholar and his/her home institution.
  • Proposals should be linked to the applicant’s professional duties (classroom instruction, student advising, and university outreach) and should provide specific details to demonstrate how the scholar would use the knowledge gained to update and improve classroom instruction at the home institution.
    Grant Provisions:
  • Round-trip economy international travel and excess-baggage allowance for the grantee,
  • For awards of 9 months, travel is provided for up to one dependent,
  • A monthly cost-of-living allowance, which is subject to U.S. income tax,
  • An allowance for books, research materials, and travel to professional meetings,
  • A settling in allowance,
  • Limited accident and sickness insurance for the grantee only, and an allowance to defray the cost of U.S. medical insurance for a maximum of two dependents. For more information and application contacts, see the links below.

    Application Deadline: Varies from country to country but between May and July.
    For more information and application, visit: Fulbright Research Awards for African Scholars
  • Doctoral Scholarships in West Africa

    Doctoral Scholarships in West Africa: Doctoral Scholarships in West Africa - “Decision‐making within rural households in West Africa.”
    The Center for Development Research is an international, English‐speaking research institute of the University of Bonn/Germany hosts the ZEF Doctoral Studies Program.
    The candidate will be expected to participate in the interdisciplinary and disciplinary courses of the ZEF Doctoral Studies Program.
    He/she will develop an individual research proposal until February. For data collection, 10‐12 months of field research in West Africa will be required.
    During the writing‐up period of the dissertation, the candidate will be based at ZEF in Bonn.

    Duration of the doctoral studies:
    Three years starting from August under conditional acceptance of the confirmation by the funding agency. A scholarship awarded will cover living, research as well as travel cost.

    Scholarship Requirements for the Applicants:

  • very good degree (Diploma, Master or Magister) in social anthropology, social geography, political sciences or development sociology
  • very good writing skills in English are required for the dissertation
  • very good knowledge of French are required for research in a francophone country
  • good knowledge of field research methods is required
  • experience in research is of advantage
  • work experience in West Africa is of advantage. African candidates are highly encouraged to apply.

    Follow the links below for more details and application contacts.

    For more information and scholarship applications, see: Doctoral Scholarships in West Africa


    PhD Funds » Engineering Funds

    PhD Funds » Engineering Funds » University Funds

    PhD Studentship in Structural Engineering: Loughborough’s Faculty of Engineering offers financial support to talented research students in a number of ways. Funding for PhD students is awarded on the basis of academic merit and your potential to become a member of one of our internationally recognised research teams.
    The Faculty has wide-ranging research capabilities and all six of our departments are able to offer unique and challenging research opportunities. The links below provide information on the areas in which our departments are able to supervise PhDs.
  • Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Civil and Building Engineering
  • Electronic and Electrical Engineering (including Systems Engineering)
  • Materials
  • Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering There is always extremely strong competition for our funding awards and you need to have achieved a high standard in your studies to date (the equivalent of a UK distinction/high upper second class degree) to receive a funding award.
    There are opportunities to obtain funding through research studentships funded by EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council UK), the University and the individual departments. Alternative routes for funding your PhD also exist through our Doctoral Training Centres, Research Associate/Assistant vacancies and Knowledge Transfer Partnerships.
    Follow the links below for more details and application contacts.
    For further details, and application materials, contact: Civil and Building Engineering PhD Research Studentships 
  • African Peacebuilding Network Residential Postdoctoral Fellowships

    Supporting independent African research and its integration into regional and global policy communities
    Open for applications, next deadline is December 14th 2014. Apply Now

    Request for Proposals for the APN Residential Postdoctoral Fellowship Program

    The African Peacebuilding Network (APN) of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) invites residential postdoctoral fellowship applications from African academics and researchers who work on conflict and peacebuilding and are based in universities in Africa.

    About the African Peacebuilding Network

    The APN promotes independent African research and analysis on peacebuilding in or near countries and regions affected by violent conflict on the continent. The program also opens the door to the emergence of a critical mass of Africa-based expertise, including researchers, analysts, and practitioners who will play an important role in the shaping of an Africa-centered peacebuilding agenda.

    About the APN Residential Postdoctoral Fellowship Program

    The residential postdoctoral fellowship is directed toward African PhDs based in African universities who are in the early postdoctoral phase of their scholarly careers. It is meant to help young post-doctoral scholars complete ongoing research projects specifically focusing on an area of African peacebuilding. Selected fellows will produce research-based knowledge that is relevant to, and has a significant impact on, peacebuilding policy and practice on the continent. Specfically, the fellowship program aims to
    • encourage young academics to expand their research beyond their PhD;
    • deepen the engagement of early-career academics with scholarly and policy discussions on peacebuilding, both in Africa and other parts of the world; and
    • further develop and apply academics’ capacity for independent research that is relevant to a range of disciplines and broader networks within and outside of Africa.
    In addition, fellows are expected to relate their work to policy debates on African peacebuilding. Fellows will present their findings to scholarly and policy forums/roundtables in Africa and the United States, with the ultimate goal of publication in high-quality peer-reviewed outlets. For its part, the APN will work toward inserting the evidence-based knowledge that fellows produce into regional and global debates and policies focusing on peacebuilding. 
    Support will enable fellows to complete an ongoing research project on issues such as the following:
    • Political economy of conflict and peacebuilding
    • Law, justice, and peace
    • Emerging transnational threats to peace
    • African approaches to conflict management and peacebuilding
    • Local leadership and community-based peacebuilding
    • African Union Agenda 2063
    • Africa’s peace and security architecture (APSA)
    • Mass atrocity and accountability: the roles of memory and history
    • Insecurities and urban spaces
    • Corruption, democratic governance, and peace
    • UN-AU partnerships and peacebuilding
    • Impact of global and regional interventions on local peacebuilding in conflict-affected countries and subregions
    • Gender gaps in peacebuilding processes
    While projects on any part of the African continent may be supported, the APN is particularly interested in work on those places that have received limited scholarly or policy attention.
    Fellowships are awarded on a competitive, peer-reviewed basis and are intended to support three months of residency in Africa and the United States, from September 2015 through December 2015. Fellows are expected to spend two months at a university or research center in Africa located outside the fellow’s home country, and a third month at either a university or a policy or practitioner institution in the United States. Fellows will also have the opportunity to attend the APN’s writing workshop and will be expected to present their research to scholarly and practice communities in their host country as well as the United States. Up to four individual grants of a maximum of $20,000 will be awarded.
    Proposals should clearly describe the objectives and significance of the applicant’s project, indicating the stage of research and how it can be completed within three months. It is important that the applicant demonstrate how support from the fellowship will add value to the overall project. Applicants should also discuss the likely relevance of their research to existing knowledge on peacebuilding practice and policy. We encourage the inclusion of a brief budget outline (not detailed), to fit appropriately within the page limit required.


    Applicants must be African citizens currently residing in an African country. Researchers based in conflict-affected African countries or those recently emerging from conflict are especially encouraged to apply.
    Applicants must hold a faculty or research position at an African university and have completed their PhD within seven years of the application deadline.

    Application Process

    All applications must be uploaded through our online portal. For inquiries or technical questions pertaining to the portal, please contact APN staff ( Unfortunately, due to the volume of applications we receive, no mailed materials will be accepted.


    1) Completed Application Form
    2) Completed Proposal & Bibliography
    3) Two Reference Letters
    4) Language evaluation(s) (if required)
    5) Updated CV

    Deadline for Applications

    Applications are due by 9 pm EST, December 14, 2014.
    If you have questions, please contact APN program staff by telephone at (+1) 212-377-2700 or by e-mail at
    APN Postdoctoral Fellowship Frequently Asked Questions
    Program Director
    Cyril Obi

    Friday, 1 August 2014





    NAMEEbola virus
    SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: African haemorrhagic fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF, Ebola HF), filovirus, EBO virus (EBOV), Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), Sudan ebolavirus(SEBOV), Ivory Coast ebolavirus (ICEBOV), Ebola-Reston (REBOV), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV), and Ebola virus disease (12).
    CHARACTERISTICS: Ebola was discovered in 1976 and is a member of the Filoviridae family (previously part of Rhabdoviridae family, which were later given a family of their own based on their genetic structure). It is an elongated filamentous molecule, which can vary between 800 – 1000 nm in length, and can reach up to14000 nm long (due to concatamerization) with a uniform diameter of 80 nm (2-5). It contains a helical nucleocapsid, (with a central axis) 20 – 30 nm in diameter, and is enveloped by a helical capsid, 40 – 50 nm in diameter, with 5 nm cross-striations (2-6). The pleomorphic viral fragment may occupy several distinct shapes (e.g., in the shape of a “6”, a “U”, or a circle), and are contained within a lipid membrane (23). Each virion contains one molecule of single-stranded, non-segmented, negative-sense viral genomic RNA (37).
    Five Ebola subtypes have been identified: Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), which was first identified in 1976 and is the most virulent; Sudan ebolavirus, (SEBOV; Ivory Coast ebolavirus (ICEBOV); Ebola-Reston (REBOV), and Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV) (138,9). Reston was isolated from cynomolgus monkeys from the Philippines in 1989 and is less pathogenic in non-human primates. It was thought to be the only subtype that does not cause infection in humans until 2009, when it was strongly speculated to have been transferred from pigs to humans. Bundibugyo was discovered in 2008, and has been found to be most closely related to the ICEBOV strain (9).


    PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: The Ebola virions enter the host cells through endocytosis and replication occurs in the cytoplasm. Upon infection, the virus targets the host blood coagulative and immune defence system and leads to severe immunosuppression (610). Early signs of infection are non-specific and flu-like, and may include sudden onset of fever, asthenia, diarrhea, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, vomiting, and abdominal pains(11). Less common early symptoms such as conjunctival injection, sore throat, rashes, and bleeding may also appear. Shock, cerebral oedema, coagulation disorders, and secondary bacterial infection may co-occur with onset of infection (4). Haemorrhaging symptoms begin 4 – 5 days after onset, which includes hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, bleeding gums, oral/lip ulceration, hematemesis, melena, hematuria, epistaxis, and vaginal bleeding (12). Hepatocellular damage, marrow depression (such as thrombocytopenia and leucopenia), serum transaminase elevation, and proteinuria may also occur. Persons that are terminally ill typically present with obtundation, anuria, shock, tachypnea, normothermia, arthralgia, and ocular diseases (13). Haemorrhagic diathesis is often accompanied by hepatic damage and renal failure, central nervous system involvement, and terminal shock with multi-organ failure (12). Contact with the virus may also result in symptoms such as severe acute viral illness, malaise, and maculopapular rash. Pregnant women will usually abort their foetuses and experience copious bleeding (2). Fatality rates range between 50 – 100%, with most dying of dehydration caused by gastric problems(14). Subtype Ebola-Reston manifests lower levels of pathogenicity in non-human primates and has not been recorded to be infectious in humans; however, sub-clinical symptoms were observed in some people with suspected contact after they developed antibodies against the virus (8).
    Pathogenicity between different subtypes of Ebola does not differ greatly in that they have all been associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans and non-human primates. The Ebola-Zaire and Sudan strains are especially known for their virulence with 53 – 90% fatality rate. Less virulent strains include the Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus and the Reston strain, and the latter has only been observed to cause sub-clinical infections to humans, with transmission from pigs (9). The major difference between the strains lies in the genome, which can vary by 30 – 40% from each other. This difference might be the cause of the varying ecologic niches of each strain and their evolutionary history. The newly discovered Bundibugyo strain, which caused
    a single outbreak in Uganda, has a genome with 30% variance from the other strains. It is most closely related to the Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus strain; however, it has been found to be more virulent as 37 fatal infections were recorded.
    EPIDEMIOLOGY: Occurs mainly in areas surrounding rain forests in central Africa (6) with the exception of Reston which occurs in the Phillipines (9). No predispositions to infection have been identified among infected victims; however, the 20 – 30-year-old age group seems to be particularly susceptible.
    Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire): The first outbreak was recorded in 1976 with 318 cases (88% fatality); in 1995 with 315 cases (81% fatality); in 2001 with 59 cases (75% fatality); in 2003 as two separate outbreaks with 143 cases (90% fatality) and 35 cases (83% fatality), respectively; and recently in 2007 with reports of 372 cases involving 166 deaths (121516).
    Sudan: The first outbreak was recorded in 1976 with 284 cases (53% fatality); and a second was recorded in 1979 with 34 cases (65% fatality) (1215).
    Gabon: The first outbreaks were recorded in 1994 with 52 cases (60% fatality); in 1996 as two separate outbreaks with 37 cases (57% fatality) and 60 cases (74% fatality), respectively; and in 2001-2 with 65 cases (82% fatality) (1215).
    Côte-d’Ivoire: Single non-fatal case of a scientist infected during a necropsy of an infected chimpanzee in the Tai Forest (17).
    Uganda: Outbreaks were recorded in 2000 with 425 cases (53% fatality); and recently in 2007 with reports of 93 cases involving 22 deaths (21518).
    Philippine: In 2009, local authorities and international agencies confirmed for the first time that the Ebola Reston virus was strongly likely to have been transmitted from pigs to humans, when it was discovered that 5 out of 77 people who had come in contact with the pigs had developed antibodies to the EBOV virus, no other clinical signs were observed(19).
    United States: An outbreak of REBOV in monkeys in 1989 in a shipment of animals from the Philippines, and a second outbreak occurred in 1996 in Texas among animals from the same Phillipine supplier (20).
    Western Uganda: The outbreak in 2007 in the townships of Bundibugyo and Kikyo in the Bundibugyo district marked the discovery of the fifth strain of the virus, the Bundibugyo ebolavirus (9). The outbreak lasted for 2 months, with 149 suspected cases and 37 deaths.
    HOST RANGE: Humans, various monkey species, chimpanzees, gorillas, baboons, and duikers (1-315161821-23). The Ebola virus genome was recently discovered in two species of rodents and one species of shrew living in forest border areas, raising the possibility that these animals may be intermediary hosts (24). Other studies of the virus have been done using guinea pig models (25). A survey of small vertebrates captured during the 2001 and 2003 outbreaks in Gabon found evidence of asymptomatic infection in three species of fruit bat (Hypsignathus monstrosusEpomops franqueti, and Myonycteris torquata(26).
    INFECTIOUS DOSE: 1 – 10 aerosolized organisms are sufficient to cause infection in humans (21).
    MODE OF TRANSMISSION: In an outbreak, it is hypothesized that the first patient becomes infected as a result of contact with an infected animal (15). Person-to-person transmission occurs via close personal contact with an infected individual or their body fluids during the late stages of infection or after death (121527). Nosocomial infections can occur through contact with infected body fluids due to the reuse of unsterilized syringes, needles, or other medical equipment contaminated with these fluids (12). Humans may be infected by handling sick or dead non-human primates and are also at risk when handling the bodies of deceased humans in preparation for funerals, suggesting possible transmission through aerosol droplets (2628). In the laboratory, infection through small-particle aerosols has been demonstrated in primates, and airborne spread among humans is strongly suspected, although it has not yet been conclusively demonstrated (1613). The importance of this route of transmission is not clear. Poor hygienic conditions can aid the spread of the virus (6).
    INCUBATION PERIOD: Two to 21 days, more often 4 – 9 days (11314).
    COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable as long as blood, secretions, organs, or semen contain the virus. Ebola virus has been isolated from semen 61 days after the onset of illness, and transmission through semen has occurred 7 weeks after clinical recovery (12).


    RESERVOIR: The natural reservoir of Ebola is unknown (12). Antibodies to the virus have been found in the serum of domestic guinea pigs, with no relation to human transmission(29). The virus can be replicated in some bat species native to the area where the virus is found, thus certain bat species may prove to be the natural hosts (26).
    ZOONOSIS: Probably transmitted from animals (non-human primates and/or bats) (215,26).
    VECTORS: Unknown.


    DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Unknown. S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors have been found to have complete mortality protection in mice infected with a lethal dose of Ebola virus (30).
    DRUG RESISTANCE: There are no known antiviral treatments available for human infections.
    SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Ebola virus is susceptible to sodium hypochlorite, lipid solvents, phenolic disinfectants, peracetic acid, methyl alcohol, ether, sodium deoxycholate, 2% glutaraldehyde, 0.25% Triton X-100, β-propiolactone, 3% acetic acid (pH 2.5), formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde, and detergents such as SDS (202131-34).
    PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Ebola are moderately thermolabile and can be inactivated by heating for 30 minutes to 60 minutes at 60ºC, boiling for 5 minutes, gamma irradiation (1.2 x106 rads to 1.27 x106 rads), and/or UV radiation (36203233).
    SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: The virus can survive in liquid or dried material for a number of days (23). Infectivity is found to be stable at room temperature or at 4°C for several days, and indefinitely stable at -70°C (620). Infectivity can be preserved by lyophilisation.


    SURVEILLANCE: Monitor anyone suffering from an acute febrile illness that has recently travelled to rural sub-Saharan Africa, especially if haemorrhagic manifestations occur (3). Diagnosis can be quickly done in an appropriately equipped laboratory using a multitude of approaches including ELISA based techniques to detect anti-Ebola antibodies or viral antigens (12), RT-PCR to detect viral RNA, immunoelectron microscopy to detect Ebola virus particles in tissues and cells, and indirect immunofluorescence to detect antiviral antibodies (121221). It is useful to note that the Marburg virus is morphologically indistinguishable from the Ebola virus, and laboratory surveillance of Ebola is extremely hazardous and should be performed in a Containment Level 4 facility (121235).
    Note: All diagnostic methods are not necessarily available in all countries.
    FIRST AID/TREATMENT: There is no effective antiviral treatment (2326). Instead, treatment is supportive, and is directed at maintaining renal function and electrolyte balance and combating haemorrhage and shock (15). Transfusion of convalescent serum may be beneficial (3). Post-exposure treatment with a nematode-derived anticoagulation protein and a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein have been shown to have 33% and 50% efficacy, respectively, in humans (4). Recent studies have shown that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can be potentially effective in silencing Zaire Ebola virus RNA polymerase L, and treatments in rhesus macaque monkeys have resulted in 100% efficacy when administered everyday for 6 days; however, delivery of the nucleic acid still remains an obstacle.
    IMMUNIZATION: None (23).
    PROPHYLAXIS: None. Management of the Ebola virus is solely based on isolation and barrier-nursing with symptomatic and supportive treatments (4).


    LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: One reported near-fatal case following a minute finger prick in an English laboratory (1976) (36). A Swiss zoologist contracted Ebola virus after performing an autopsy on a chimpanzee in 1994 (237). An incident in Germany in 2009 when a laboratory scientist pricked herself with a needle that had just been used to infect a mouse with Ebola, however infection has not be confirmed. Additional incidents were recorded in the US in 2004, and a fatal case in Russia in 2004 (4).
    SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, serum, urine, respiratory and throat secretions, semen, and organs or their homogenates from human or animal hosts (1235). Human or animal hosts, including non-human primates, may represent a further source of infection (35).
    PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation, respiratory exposure to infectious aerosols and droplets, and/or direct contact with broken skin or mucous membranes (35).
    SPECIAL HAZARDS: Work with, or exposure to, infected non-human primates, rodents, or their carcasses represents a risk of human infection (35).


    CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Containment Level 4 facilities, equipment, and operational practices for work involving infectious or potentially infectious materials, animals, and cultures.
    PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Personnel entering the laboratory must remove street clothing, including undergarments, and jewellery, and change into dedicated laboratory clothing and shoes, or don full coverage protective clothing (i.e., completely covering all street clothing). Additional protection may be worn over laboratory clothing when infectious materials are directly handled, such as solid-front gowns with tight fitting wrists, gloves, and respiratory protection. Eye protection must be used where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes (39).
    OTHER PRECAUTIONS: All activities with infectious material should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) in combination with a positive pressure suit, or within a class III BSC line. Centrifugation of infected materials must be carried out in closed containers placed in sealed safety cups, or in rotors that are unloaded in a biological safety cabinet. The integrity of positive pressure suits must be routinely checked for leaks. The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Open wounds, cuts, scratches, and grazes should be covered with waterproof dressings. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animal activities (39).


    SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle and, wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply suitable disinfectant, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre. Allow sufficient contact time before clean up (39).
    DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all materials for disposal from the containment laboratory by steam sterilisation, chemical disinfection, incineration or by gaseous methods. Contaminated materials include both liquid and solid wastes (39).
    STORAGE: In sealed, leak-proof containers that are appropriately labelled and locked in a Containment Level 4 laboratory (39).


    REGULATORY INFORMATION: The import, transport, and use of pathogens in Canada is regulated under many regulatory bodies, including the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Environment Canada, and Transport Canada. Users are responsible for ensuring they are compliant with all relevant acts, regulations, guidelines, and standards.
    UPDATED: August 2010.
    PREPARED BY: Pathogen Regulation Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada.
    Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Pathogen Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.
    Copyright ©
    Public Health Agency of Canada, 2010


    1.  Plague. (2004). In R. G. Darling, & J. B. Woods (Eds.), USAMRIID's Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook (5th ed., pp. 40-44). Fort Detrick M.D.: USAMRIID.
    2.  Acha, P. N., & Szyfres, B. (2003). In Pan american Health Organization (Ed.),Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals (3rd ed., pp. 142-145). Washington D.C.: Pan American Health Organization.
    3.  Sanchez, A. (2001). Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses. In D. M. Knipe, & P. M. Howley (Eds.), Fields virology (4th ed., pp. 1279-1304). Philadelphia, PA.: Lippencott-Ravenpp.
    4.  Feldmann, H. (2010). Are we any closer to combating Ebola infections? Lancet, 375(9729), 1850-1852. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60597-1.
    5.  Beran, G. W. (Ed.). (1994). Handbook of Zoonosis, Section B: Viral (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, LLC.
    6.  Mwanatambwe, M., Yamada, N., Arai, S., Shimizu-Suganuma, M., Shichinohe, K., & Asano, G. (2001). Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF): mechanism of transmission and pathogenicity. Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nihon Ika Daigaku Zasshi, 68(5), 370-375.
    7.  Sanchez, A., Kiley, M. P., Klenk, H. D., & Feldmann, H. (1992). Sequence analysis of the Marburg virus nucleoprotein gene: comparison to Ebola virus and other non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses. The Journal of General Virology, 73 ( Pt 2)(Pt 2), 347-357.
    8.  Takada, A., & Kawaoka, Y. (2001). The pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.Trends in Microbiology, 9(10), 506-511.
    9.  Towner, J. S., Sealy, T. K., Khristova, M. L., Albarino, C. G., Conlan, S., Reeder, S. A., Quan, P. L., Lipkin, W. I., Downing, R., Tappero, J. W., Okware, S., Lutwama, J., Bakamutumaho, B., Kayiwa, J., Comer, J. A., Rollin, P. E., Ksiazek, T. G., & Nichol, S. T. (2008). Newly discovered ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda. PLoS Pathogens, 4(11), e1000212. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000212 .
    10.  Harcourt, B. H., Sanchez, A., & Offermann, M. K. (1999). Ebola virus selectively inhibits responses to interferons, but not to interleukin-1beta, in endothelial cells.Journal of Virology, 73(4), 3491-3496.
    11.  Bwaka, M. A., Bonnet, M. J., Calain, P., Colebunders, R., De Roo, A., Guimard, Y., Katwiki, K. R., Kibadi, K., Kipasa, M. A., Kuvula, K. J., Mapanda, B. B., Massamba, M., Mupapa, K. D., Muyembe-Tamfum, J. J., Ndaberey, E., Peters, C. J., Rollin, P. E., Van den Enden, E., & Van den Enden, E. (1999). Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: clinical observations in 103 patients. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179 Suppl 1, S1-7. doi:10.1086/514308.
    12.  Zilinskas, R. A. (Ed.). (2000). Biololgical Warfare - Modern Offense and Defense. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
    13.  Feigin, R. D. (Ed.). (2004). Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (5th ed.). Philadelphia, USA: Elsevier, Inc.
    14.  Casillas, A. M., Nyamathi, A. M., Sosa, A., Wilder, C. L., & Sands, H. (2003). A current review of Ebola virus: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and diagnostic assessment. Biological Research for Nursing, 4(4), 268-275.
    15.  Bausch, D. G., Jeffs B.S.A.G, & Boumandouki, P. (2008). Treatment of Marburg and Ebola haemorrhagic fevers: a strategy for testing new drugs and vaccines under outbreak conditions. Antiviral Res., 78(1), 150-161.
    16.  WHO Disease Outbreak News - Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (2007). , 2008External link.
    17.  Formenty, P., Boesch, C., Wyers, M., Steiner, C., Donati, F., Dind, F., Walker, F., & Le Guenno, B. (1999). Ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of Cote d'Ivoire. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179 Suppl 1, S120-6. doi:10.1086/514296.
    18.  WHO Disease Outbreak News - Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever in Uganda - Update. (2007). , 2008 External link.
    19.  Morris, K. (2009). First pig-to-human transmission of Ebola Reston virus.9(3), 148.
    20.  Evans, A. S., & Kaslow, R. A. (Eds.). (1997). Viral Infections of Humans - Epidemiology and Control (4th ed.). New York, NY: Plenum Publishing Corporation.
    21.  Franz, D. R., Jahrling, P. B., McClain, D. J., Hoover, D. L., Byrne, W. R., Pavlin, J. A., Christopher, G. W., Cieslak, T. J., Friedlander, A. M., & Eitzen E.M., J. (2001). Clinical recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 21(3), 435-473.
    22.  Bray, M. (2003). Defense against filoviruses used as biological weapons. Antiviral Research, 57(1-2), 53-60.
    23.  Leroy, E. M., Rouquet, P., Formenty, P., Souquière, S., Kilbourne, A., Froment, J. -., Bermejo, M., Smit, S., Karesh, W., Swanepoel, R., Zaki, S. R., & Rollin, P. E. (2004). Multiple Ebola Virus Transmission Events and Rapid Decline of Central African Wildlife.Science, 303(5656), 387-390.
    24.  Morvan, J. M., Nakouné, E., Deubel, V., & Colyn, M. (2000). Ebola virus and forest ecosystem. [Écosystèmes forestiers et virus Ebola] Bulletin De La Societe De Pathologie Exotique, 93(3), 172-175.
    25.  Connolly, B. M., Steele, K. E., Davis, K. J., Geisbert, T. W., Kell, W. M., Jaax, N. K., & Jahrling, P. B. (1999). Pathogenesis of experimental Ebola virus infection in guinea pigs. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179 Suppl 1, S203-17. doi:10.1086/514305.
    26.  Leroy, E. M., Kumulungui, B., Pourrut, X., Rouquet, P., Hassanin, A., Yaba, P., Délicat, A., Paweska, J. T., Gonzalez, J. -., & Swanepoel, R. (2005). Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature, 438(7068), 575-576.
    27.  Arthur, R. R. (2002). Ebola in Africa--discoveries in the past decade. Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Europeen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin, 7(3), 33-36.
    28.  Hewlett, B. S., & Amolat, R. P. (2003). Cultural contexts of Ebola in Northern Uganda.Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9(10), 1242-1248.
    29.  Stansfield, S. K., Scribner, C. L., Kaminski, R. M., Cairns, T., McCormick, J. B., & Johnson, K. M. (1982). Antibody to Ebola virus in guinea pigs: Tandala, Zaire. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 146(4), 483-486.
    30.  Huggins, J., Zhang, Z. X., & Bray, M. (1999). Antiviral drug therapy of filovirus infections: S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors inhibit Ebola virus in vitro and in a lethal mouse model. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179 Suppl 1, S240-7. doi:10.1086/514316.
    31.  Loutfy, M. R., Assmar, M., Burgess, D. C. H., & Kain, K. C. (1998). Effects of viral hemorrhagic fever inactivation methods on the performance of rapid diagnostic tests for Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 178(6), 1852-1855.
    32.  Elliott, L. H., McCormick, J. B., & Johnson, K. M. (1982). Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 16(4), 704-708.
    33.  Mitchell, S. W., & McCormick, J. B. (1984). Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 20(3), 486-489.
    34.  Mahanty, S., Kalwar, R., & Rollin, P. E. (1999). Cytokine measurement in biological samples after physicochemical treatment for inactivation of biosafety level 4 viral agents. Journal of Medical Virology, 59(3), 341-345.
    35.  Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) (2007). In Richmond J. Y., McKinney R. W. (Eds.), . Washington, D.C.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    36.  Emond, R. T. D., Evans, B., Bowen, E. T. W., & Lloyd, G. (1977). A case of Ebola virus infection. British Medical Journal, 2(6086), 541-544.
    37.  Formenty, P., Hatz, C., Le Guenno, B., Stoll, A., Rogenmoser, P., & Widmer, A. (1999). Human infection due to Ebola virus, subtype Cote d'Ivoire: Clinical and biologic presentation. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179(SUPPL. 1), S48-S53.
    38.  Human pathogens and toxins act. S.C. 2009, c. 24, Second Session, Fortieth Parliament, 57-58 Elizabeth II, 2009. (2009).
    39.  Public Health Agency of Canada. (2004). In Best M., Graham M. L., Leitner R., Ouellette M. and Ugwu K. (Eds.), Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines (3rd ed.). Canada: Public Health Agency of Canada.

    Saturday, 15 March 2014

    How to Use the E-Resources

    Saturday, March 15, 2014

    • Go to "Link Electronic Resources Here" on the right hand side of this page
    • Right click any desired resource or database
    • Select Open in New Tab
    • Browse the database page by either clicking on "Blog Archives" or Search the database for articles of your choice using the "Search Box".

    • Note: Ask Library staff for password and username where required!

    Have a research full March.

    Thursday, 6 March 2014

    WARC Travel Grant English 2014

    Thursday, March 6, 2014


    Your Link to the Community of West Africa & Diaspora Scholars.
    WARC Travel Grant 2014
    The WARC Travel Grant program promotes intra-African cooperation and exchange among researchers and institutions by providing support to African scholars and graduate students for research visits to other institutions on the continent. The WARC Travel Grant provides travel costs up to $1,500 and a stipend of $1,500. This competition is open only to West African nationals, with preference given to those affiliated with West African colleges, universities, or research institutions.
    Travel grant funds may be used to:
    1) attend and present papers at academic conferences relevant to
    the applicant’s field of research;
    2) visit libraries or archives that contain resources necessary to the
    applicant’s current academic work;
    3) engage in collaborative work with colleagues at another
    4) travel to a research site.
    Successful candidates must agree to make public presentations on their research to 1) their academic institution, and 2) their local communities. Moreover, successful candidates will submit to the
    WARC Library in Dakar one copy of their dissertation/thesis, articles, and other publications arising
    from the research funded through this grant.
    All applications must be submitted online. Complete applications will include uploaded word, pdf, or
    jpgs of all of the documents listed below. Incomplete applications will not be considered.
    • A brief (50-80 word) abstract of the activity to be funded, beginning with a clear statement of purpose
    • A description (6 double-spaced pages maximum) of the applicant’s research and how the proposed travel is relevant to this work. This should be presented in language understandable to nonspecialist readers
    •  A curriculum vitae with research and teaching record when relevant
    •  If attending a conference, an abstract of the paper to be read and a letter of acceptance to the conference
    •  If visiting another institution, an invitation from host institution
    •  If travel is to consult archives or other materials, a description of the collections to be consulted and their significance to the applicant’s research
    •  For graduate students, a letter of recommendation by the professor overseeing their research
    •  Proof of citizenship in the form of a photocopy of the applicant’s passport (please note: this competition is open only to West African nationals eligible for non-immigrant visas to the U.S.).
    Application deadlines 2014 cycle:
    •  March 15, 2014 for travel to take place between July 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014
    •  September 15, 2014 for travel to take place between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2015
    Inquiries should be sent to the email addresses below:
    All clarification questions should be sent to and technical questions should be
    sent to
    Link to the Application: